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Track and record your activities throughout the whole day and start APP to see the fulfillment schedule of the daily target. Combined with a built-in dual sensor, it can accurately measure your walking distance km in 24 hours. Enrich, Relive and Share. Smart mobile connection. Can be saved on the watch for 21 days. Fortunately, advances in computing power now allow chemical names to be parsed and generated read and written with almost the same ease as conventional connection tables. A significant complication, however, is that although the vast majority of chemistry uses English nomenclature, a significant fraction is in other languages.
This complicates the task of filing and analyzing chemical patents, purchasing from compound vendors, and text mining research articles or Web pages. We describe some issues with manipulating chemical names in various languages, including British, American, German, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish, Swedish, Polish, and Hungarian, and describe the current state-of-the-art in software tools to simplify the process. Chemical nomenclature forms a small but economically significant specialization of technical document translation. The requirement for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to file patents in multiple territories or for European customs legislation to be published in the native languages of member states generates demand for translations of chemical compound names.
The linguistic morphology of chemical names is often very different from the host language. Systems that assume that English text can be divided at word boundaries spaces and the resulting words looked up via a lexicon or indexed are often confused by chemical names. For example, English search engines such as Google and Yahoo!
Another complicating factor is that whitespace itself is significant in chemical nomenclature. Capitalization is also sometimes significant in chemical naming. As shown above, the case-sensitive nature of chemical names requires special care when capitalizing a name, such as when it appears at the start of a sentence. The orthography for chemical names is also often different from the host language. Chemical names can contain sequences of letters not observed in regular text.
This often confuses spelling correction and optical character recognition OCR software that use statistical models of letter, digraph, or trigraph frequencies. These factors have meant that translation of chemical names has traditionally required specialized expertise, often requiring a formally trained chemist who is fluent in the source and destination languages.
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The amount of chemical information available on the Internet can be estimated by searching with Google using different languages. Although perhaps skewed by the word boundary issue described previously, these results show that a significant amount of information concerning chemistry is available on the Internet in languages other than English. An interesting aspect of chemical name translation is the influence of history on the conventions used by different languages.
As knowledge of chemistry has developed and evolved in parallel with that of human languages, the similarities and differences between the chemical terms words used in different languages frequently reflect the geopolitics at the time that class of chemical compounds was first discovered or synthesized. To a first approximation, the history of chemical nomenclature can be divided into three important periods. Since prehistoric times, all human languages have had a word for water.gelatocottage.sg/includes/2020-06-13/1231.php
Foreign Language Translation of Chemical Nomenclature by Computer
Although many human civilizations and cultures never developed an advanced understanding of the physical sciences, the need to express the most primitive of needs is universal. As civilizations developed metallurgy, terms for easy to refine metals such as iron, copper, and gold were added to languages. By the Middle Ages, chemistry had become the domain of the alchemists. The compounds and elements found were named by their properties. It should be noted that the introduction of a specialized chemical nomenclature by alchemists was originally intended as a form of obfuscation. It was deliberately intended to be incomprehensible to the general public and to keep results secret from competing alchemists.
The birth of modern chemistry can be attributed to the pioneering work of Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier, the father of modern chemistry, and his colleagues in the s and s. He, Guyton de Morveau, Bertholet, and de Fourcroy also published the first list of naming recommendations. This era standardized what are today considered traditional names.
Competing chemists in different countries named compounds differently but shared some underlying principles. This convention was generally adopted by the midth century and is still in universal use today. In the last 75 years or so, huge strides have been made in the field of systematic nomenclature standardization.
Today known as the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists IUPAC , this standards body has published revisions and refinements to organic chemical nomenclature in , , , , 9 and Chemical Abstracts Service CAS has also made significant contributions to the effort of systematizing chemical nomenclature. Modern chemical nomenclature, as standardized by IUPAC, provides the underlying foundations for naming chemical compounds around the world.
The original standards are published in English, and then each national body National Adhering Organization in IUPAC terminology is responsible for publishing the localized versions of the standards. One result of this approach is that English chemical nomenclature tends to be the most developed, with different languages advancing by the publication date of the most recent translation.
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For example, some of terms introduced in the most recent IUPAC standard have not yet been officially translated into some languages. Examples of translated standards documents or chemical nomenclature texts in French, 13 German, 14 , 15 Hungarian, 16 Polish, 17 , 18 Spanish, 19 and Swedish 20 are given in the bibliography. A huge benefit arising from the fact that all languages follow the same underlying grammar and semantics is that the structure of chemical names is easily recognizable across languages.
Despite significant differences in their written forms, one remarkable property is that systematic IUPAC names are pronounced similarly around much of the world. Although an article such as this cannot aspire to teach the reader the details of how to translate chemical nomenclature between languages, the following sections provide an overview of some of the issues with chemical names in English, Japanese, and Chinese.
With million people using English as their first language, English is the third most spoken language in the world, ranked by the number of native speakers. Although, in the following sections, English is used as a baseline for comparison, the differences between the British and American forms of chemical names is informative.
There are only three significant differences in systematic chemical naming between American and traditional British names. Japanese is the ninth ranked language in the world, with million native speakers.
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The Japanese writing system consists of three main scripts or types of characters, kanji logographic characters of Chinese origin and hiragana and katakana both syllabaries whose characters reflected how parts of a word should be pronounced. Kanji characters were borrowed from Chinese over years ago and are used to denote the most common concepts and words in Japanese. Hiragana is used to write words more recently added to Japanese for which there are no kanji characters or occasionally in place of rare or difficult kanji characters.
Finally, katakana is used to write foreign words and names loaned from other languages and as a consequence for technical and scientific words. Each katakana character denotes a syllable, much like the characters of the English alphabet denote phonemes. An abbreviated table of katakana along with their romanization is shown in Table 3.
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This table may be used to romanize many of the Japanese examples in this article. This demonstrates that a major task of translating from Japanese to English is disambiguating these characters, by making use of their context. In the periodic table, the prehistoric metals known since antiquity, such as gold Au , silver Ag , lead Pb , iron Fe , copper Cu , and tin Sn , all have kanji characters, while more recent elements such as sodium Na and uranium U are expressed in katakana, which is consistent with their time of addition to the language.