Not exactly, as the president would have it, "American carnage.
“If you tell a big enough lie and tell it frequently enough, it will be believed.”
The effect is more powerful when people are tired or distracted by other information. He's right that the trends aren't real, of course. But some number of people still believe it. Every time the president tweets or says something untrue, fact-checkers race to point out the falsehood—to little effect. A Pew Research poll last fall found 57 percent of presidential election voters believed crime across the US had gotten worse since , despite FBI data showing it had fallen by about 20 percent.
So what's going on here? Remember those "Head On! Apply Directly to the Forehead! That's the illusory truth effect in action. The ads repeated the phrase so much so that people found themselves at the drugstore staring at a glue-stick-like contraption thinking, "Apply directly to MY forehead! Repetition is what makes fake news work, too, as researchers at Central Washington University pointed out in a study way back in before the term was everywhere.
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It's also a staple of political propaganda. It's why flacks feed politicians and CEOs sound bites that they can say over and over again. Not to go all Godwin's Law on you, but even Adolf Hitler knew about the technique. The effect works because when people attempt to assess truth they rely on two things: whether the information jibes with their understanding, and whether it feels familiar. The first condition is logical: People compare new information with what they already know to be true and consider the credibility of both sources.
But researchers have found that familiarity can trump rationality—so much so that hearing over and over again that a certain fact is wrong can have a paradoxical effect. It's so familiar that it starts to feel right. Murray's work is neither referenced in Langer's ebook nor in the Hitler's Source-Book  compiled by Langer, but it is clear Langer's work heavily depends upon that of Murray. Langer's work was published after the war as The Mind of Adolf Hitler , the wartime report having remained classified for over twenty years.
'Alternative facts': A psychiatrist’s guide to twisted relationships to truth
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A propaganda technique. For other uses, see Big Lie disambiguation.
I, ch. X . Gaslighting Noble lie Fake news Post-truth politics Truthiness. James Murphy". Archived from the original on 24 July Retrieved Die Zeit ohne Beispiel. Harvard University Press.
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What's a really obvious lie you told someone and they believed it?
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